Integrated Writing: Read a text, listen to a lecture or conversation and write
compare and contrast
identify the main points
The points in the reading contrast with the points raised in the lecture or conversation
A x X
B x Y
C x Z
reporting verbs: say, claim, argue, defend, explain, criticize, warn, advise, tell, state, relate, reiterate, rectify, ratify, explain, question, challenge, support, champion, uphold, maintain, advocate, pinpoint, highlight, underline, object, oppose, (contest), emphasize, raise, expound, examine, consider
Make reference to:
The author x The lecturer
The writer x The male speaker/The female speaker
The text x The lecture
Linkers: whereas, while, as opposed to, in contrast to, contrary to, though, although, even though, despite, in spite of, on one hand, on the other hand
though= although = even though (from most informal to most formal)
Although/Even though + clause
despite = in spite of (more formal)
despite/in spite of + verb + -ing, e.g. despite/in spite of the weather being bad, we decided to go for a picnic.
despite/in spite of + noun e.g. despite/in spite of the bad weather, we decided to go for a picnic.
despite/in spite of + the fact that + clause e.g. despite/in spite of the fact that the weather was bad, we decided to go for a picnic.
Which, in your opinion, is easier – the independent or the integrated task? Why?